Episode 2

GAS TREATMENT

Natural gas extracted from the well is mainly composed of methane but may also contain impurities such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons and even water. H2S and CO2, commonly known as sour gases, have a corrosive effect on gas pipelines and processing equipment, as well as being toxic to humans.

They can also freeze during the liquefaction process, forming solid particles that will clog the pipes and process equipment. For the same reason, water must also be removed. 
Unwanted substances extracted from natural gas provide valuable components for other industries.

Even if these components are unwanted in the further processing of natural gas, they provide a value to other industries. The following listing represents in examples, how components of raw gas can be used:

NITROGEN

Refrigerant
Inert Gas

PROPANE

Fuel

Refrigerant

HELIUM

Welding
Medical Applications

CHLORINE

Sanitation

Disinfection

CARBON DIOXIDE

Food & Beverages
Inert Gas

ETHANE

Plastics
Anti-Freeze

HYDROGEN SULFIDE

Fertilizers
(Converted to sulphur)

BUTANE

Fuel Canisters

Lighters

METHAN ETHIOL

Animal Feed

Pesticides

METHANE

Natural Gas

GAS SWEETENING

Sour gases are removed first from natural gas to make it suitable for transport and sale. Called gas sweetening, the process involves extracting the gases with aqueous solutions called amines.

Diethanolamine (DEA) and Monoethanolamine (MEA) are the most commonly used. Gas sweetening is a three-step process: absorption, regeneration and recycling.

Acid Gas

K°Bloc
Lean Cooler

Sweet Natural Gas

Absorber

Sour Gas

Flash Gas

Flash Drum

Water / Sea Water

K°Bloc
Lean | Rich Interchanger

K°Bloc
Reboiler

K°Bloc
Condenser

Steam / Thermal Oil

Acid Gas

Reflex Drum

Stripper

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ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT

Flash Drum and Reflux Drum

A flash drum is a vapor liquid separator which is used to reduce the pressure before the rich amine is fed into the regenerator/stripper. The pressure drop – or flash – causes some of the components to evaporate. 

Note: This diagram illustrates the principles of the sweetening process only. Plants usually consist of several absorbers connected to one large stripper

 

WHITEPAPER: REIMAGINING
THE REBOILER

A reboiler is a heat exchanger located at the bottom of a distillation column, stripping column or reactor. It provides heat (in the form of vapour) to the column. Liquid from the bottom of the column flows over the reboiler, taking up heat from the heating medium, such as steam, which is flowing on the other side of the reboiler. The liquid from the column will be partially or completely vaporised and returned to the column. The reboiler is most often heated by steam, but commercial heat transfer fluids or recirculated process streams are also used.

READ MORE and DOWNLOAD OUR WHITEPAPER

DEHYDRATION

Sweetened natural gas has to be dehydrated to extract water and other hydrocarbons which would otherwise lead to corrosion of the pipes and other equipment. The method depends on the way the gas will be transported.

If it is to be liquefied, the temperature swing adsorption process is used as this process can bring down the hydrate content to less than 1 ppm. Gas sent by pipeline is dehydrated by the triethylene glycol process.

Temperature Swing Adsorption

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Dry Gas

Adsorber

Hydrocarbon & Water

Sweet Gas from AGRU

Shell & Tube Process

K°Bond

K°Bond

Air Fin Cooler

This is a two-step process of dehydration and adsorber dehydration.

Triethylene Glycol Process

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Glycol Contactor

Glycol Regenerator

Wet Feed Gas

Flash Gas

Flash Drum

Skim Oil

Rich Glycol

Glycol Pump

Water Vapor

Acid Gas

Lean Glycol

Dry Gas

Water / Sea Water

K°Bloc
GPHE
Air Cooler
Lean Cooler

K°Bloc
Reboiler

K°Bloc
Lean | Rich
Interchanger

K°Bloc
Condenser

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Most natural gas producers use triethylene glycol (TEG) to remove water from the gas stream to comply with pipeline quality standards.

 

SCRUBBING & FRACTIONATION

Methane to Liquefaction

Sweet,
Dry Gas

Methane

Ethane

Propane

Butane

Ethane

Propane

Butane

Butane

Condensate

Propane

Butane

De-Ethanizer

De-Propanizer

De-Butanizer

Ethane

Propane

Butane

K°Bond

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K°Bond

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K°Bond

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K°Bond

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K°Bond

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K°Bond

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K°Bond

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FIND OUT MORE ABOUT LIQUEFACTION

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Gas Extraction

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Gas Treatment

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Liquefaction

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Transportation

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Regasification

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End Use

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Meesmannstr. 103
44807 Bochum

Germany
Tel. +49-(0)234-980-0

info@kelvion.com